Book QuizTest for Chapter 1 - Introduction

Chapter 1 is the introduction chapter. Firstly the background to AFM is explained, which techniques preceded it, and how it came to be invented. Then some important characteristics of AFM are discussed, with reference to other microscopy techniques. This is a short chapter, covering briefly some material that occurs in greater details through the rest of the book; for this reason there are only 5 questions here.

Q1. What two major instruments preceded AFM?

Q2. Who invented the AFM and built the first ever instrument?

Q3. Which SPM technique is most commonly used, STM or AFM?

Q4. Which prize was given to the inventors of AFM and why?

Q5. Limitation in imaging what kind of sample limitation lead to the development of the AFM?

Long answer question.

Compare SEM, TEM with AFM. Under what circumstance would AFM be better than SEM, TEM and optical microscopy? Under what circumstance would AFM be worse than SEM, TEM and optical microscopy?


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This page has resources to help use the book "Atomic Force Microscopy" for learning and teaching about AFM.



Here are some quizzes based on the chapters in the book.

  • The first quiz is based on Chapter 1 - the introduction to AFM.AFM book Quizzes

Chapter 1: Introduction to AFM Quiz

  • The second quiz is based on chapter 2, which is all about  AFM instrumentation, and describes in detail how AFM instruments work:

Chapter 2: AFM Instrumentation Quiz

  • The third quiz is all about the different modes and experiments available in AFM:

Chapter 3: AFM Modes Quiz

  • The fourth quiz covers the chapter on practical aspects of acquiring AFM images and other data:

Chapter 4: Measuring AFM Images Quiz

  • The fifth quiz is about processing, analysis and display of AFM data:

Chapter 5: Processing AFM Images Quiz

  • The sixth and last quiz is about artifacts in AFM images.

Chapter 6: AFM Artifacts Quiz



I regularly teach AFM courses, which typically feature a mix of lectures and hands-on classes. When there are open classes, they will be announced on the front page of this website. The recurring course in Porto, the Porto AFM Workshop (formerly the Requimte AFM Workshop) is held annually in Porto, Portugal, and is described here.



  • AFM Poster - can be a useful aid to show how AFM works in your lab / classroom


  • AFM slide - a simple slide showing a schematic of the workings of an AFM



I am happy to receive suggestions on other learning and teaching content that would be useful here, please feel free to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. for this!

screenshot of There is a freely-downloadable .pdf (4.8 MB file) of chapter 1 of my book, "Atomic Force Microscopy" available on the OUP web site. This has the preface and the whole of chapter 1.

This chapter contains background to AFM, and describes a few of the capabilities of the technique It explains how the technique was invented, and which instruments preceded it, and why AFM was needed. It also compares AFM to other microscopy techniques. The preface also contains information of the contents of the rest of the book.

The book should be published around 25th of March, pretty soon now!

requimterequimteUCIBIOAFM TWIN LAB

This page has contact information, locations, and other useful information about the AFM instruments in the AFM TwinLabs located in UCIBIO - Requimte labs in Porto and Lisbon, Portugal.

This page is intended for users and potential users of the instruments; for more information about Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), see the links on the left. The two labs are equipped with TTAFM instruments from AFM Workshop.



The Porto AFM Workshop 2016 has finished recently, it ran from the from the 18th April to 21st April. This is a training workshop, aimed at any researcher or scientist, who wants to learn about AFM, or increase their knowledge of the technique. Following the successful courses that ran in 2011, 2013 and 2014, the course will included several hours hands-on training in acquiring images with the atomic force microscope as well as AFM data processing. As well as lectures on practical classes, the course featured advanced topics lectures from guest scientists in biology and materials science.

A report on the course was published here recently and the results from the image competition we ran will be announced soon!

  A blog with information and student feedback from the previous courses can be seen here: 2014 courseRequimte AFM Workshop 2013



Porto Lab: Long Beach and San Diego

Lisbon lab: Signal Hill
Porto Lab AFM in Lisbon
For further details about the facilities in the Porto lab click here or click on the picture above. For further details about the facilities in the Lisbon lab click here or click on the picture above.

This site allows users to access instrument specifications and locations, as well as contacts of the two supervisors of the Requimte AFM Twin-lab

·         See booking schedule, make bookings at the Twin-lab – for registered users of the instruments only.

·         When available you will also see the schedule for Requimte AFM mini-course, and sign-up

·         Currently in development: Our protocols for sample preparation, image acquisition, image processing, image analysis. These materials are specifically designed for the individual Requimte instruments. Currently the following procedures are available:

·         You can use the following links to download the software required to process the images from the Requimte instruments. This software is Gwyddion, which can be found at There is a user guide for this software here. It is recommended to use version 2.22 or above of Gwyddion. For other AFM/SPM software, look here: SPM Software.

· To access materials specific to one of the labs, click on the lab you are interested in above.

The locations of the two AFM labs in the TWINLAB are shown on a google map linked to below. Click the markers on the map for full address details. Contact details can be found on the pages describing the two instruments linked above (click on the instrument pictures).

Click here to see a google map showing our locations


Atomic Force Microscopy at Atomic Force Microscopy is now available to order from Amazon in the UK, see the link below.The book will arrive at with some delay, since the shipping from the UK to the U.S. takes a while. You can also order from OUP direct, here.


This book is perfect for an introduction to AFM for new users, and I highly recommend it to researchers using the technique. It has lots of practical information on how to obtain AFM images, and also how to analyse and process the data. it also has an entire chapter devoted to what can go wrong with AFM, and how to avoid these problems! I believe it would also make an excellent coursebook, and some chapter quizzes will appear on this website soon. The quiz on the first chapter is already available here.

Click here to see Atomic Force Microscopy at