phase image composite resinrequimte     The Manager of this instrument is:                 Francisco  Jorge Caldeira.
     Contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

          AFM Lab DQ-FCT-UNL, Caparica.

I am a TT-AFM from AFM I was born (Jorge Caldeira assembled me) in Signal Hill CA USA, so he named me...Signal Hill !
I travel from Signal Hill CA USA to Monte de Caparica Portugal ... Later I visit my twin machine Long Beach in Porto for the 2013 AFM  course, and to pay its visit to Caparica in the 2011 AFM course.
So both TT-AFM's were the first machines assembled and we traveled each almost 10 000 km far...
See the place were I was made .... and Leonor's hair that I imaged and got her the AFM 2013 course prize...
Can I use AFM ?     Yes you can   ...

 signalhill Leonor hair details s


GPS: LAT=38.66219, LONG -9.20867  Location: Room 119 DQ FCT UNL PT
Current Projects:

PEDOT on Paper 

Cesar Laia

Jorge Caldeira




Pf1 bacteriophage cytochrome c

electrostatic complex macroscopic fibers


Heber Silva

Ruben Chaves

Jorge Caldeira

Peter Eaton





Tooth dentinal tubes

Acid atacked hipoclorite cleaned


João Oliveira

Jorge Caldeira




Polymeric nanoparticles, formed from polystyrene with pending hydrophilic glucose moieties


Krasimira Petrova

Requimte FCT UNL



Polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) based on amphiphilic polymeric conjugates composed of cholic acid, sucrose and PEG. 

Carina Crucho

Teresa Barros

Requimte FCT UNL



Dental restoration resins and polishing systems


Rita Simões

Jorge Caldeira





Classic Maya chrysoprase maskette pendant ca. 800 AD 


Hugo Miguel Crespo

Faculdade de Letras Universidade de Lisboa


Ana Pereira






Core-shell polymeric nanoparticles, formed from polystyrene with pending bifunctional glucose

 Krasimira Petrova

Requimte FCT UNL



Nanoestructured (nanocal), synthesized from metallic Ca

CaO Þ Ca(OH)2 + CO2    Þ CaCO3

Giovanni Borsoi

LNEC Portugal

TU Delft Holland


Photochemical dendrimeric polymerization of tripodal coumarin

 João Avo

João Lima

Jorge Parola

Requimte FCT UNL



Pseudomonas aeruginosa with bacteriphage Pf1 | Patricia Montez  Héber Silva, Ruben Chaves Jorge Caldeira

Dechorosprillium sp Bacteria | Cristina Costa

Yeast | Madalena Oom

Magnetically Aligned Pf1 Virus + Protein assocaition | Ruben C., Héber S., Celina S., P. Eaton

Magnetic Nano Particles Fe3O4 "bare" 10x10 μm Image | Cecília Roque,  Sara Santana

 afm_scan_2011-01-24_03.22.11 10um 256 pixels right







 Vertically polsihed Tooth sample  20x20 μm Image  | J.Martins dos Santos, Ana Mano Azul,  Mario.Polido, João Oliveira e Jorge Caldeira



                               Instrument Information

signal hilll instrument with computer










This instrument is a modified TT-AFM from AFMWorkshop.

  • Instrument Configuration: Light lever (optical lever) - based sample-scanning AFM
  • Sample Sizes:ca. 13x13x5 mm
  • Imaging Modes: vibrating (tapping), non-vibrating (contact), phase imaging, lateral force microscopy (friction force microscopy)*
  • Imaging Environment: Air or Liquid* (experimental).
  • Z-translation: Vertical direct drive (1micron resolution)
  • XY Translation: manual micrometers
  • Video Optical Microscope: Zoom to 400X, 3 micron resolution (3M pixel camera)
  • Scan Range: 70x70x17 microns
  • Linearisation: All axes (x, y and z) with strain guages, can be turned off for enhanced signal to noise ratio.
  • Z noise level: less than 0.2 Angstrom
  • Vibration isolation: homemade passive solution


signal hill

Signal Hill Instrument closeup


  • Startup Procedure
  • Shutdown Procedure
  • Scanning in contact "non-vibrating" mode
  • Scanning in tapping "vibrating" mode
  • These protocols are currently in development, meanwhile, here is a link to the latest version of the protocols word document for use of "Long Beach": TTAFM_protocols.doc

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